Gothic Architecture, Sculpture & Stained Glass

The Gothic period was a progressionary step from the preceding Romanesque period.
Gothic Architecture began with the construction of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Denis, in the Ile- de France, just north of Paris in 1144.
Abbot Suger is known as the ‘creator of Gothic’. 


Gothic Stages

The Experimental Stage
Roughly the period from the building of the Abbey Church at St. Denis to the opening decades of the thirteenth century.
The Classical Stage
Spans the entire thirteenth century
Rheims Cathedral
The Flamboyant Stage
Extends into the end of the fifteenth century

Gothic architectural features


Pointed Arches 
Rib-Vaulting
 
Ambulatory with radiating chapels
Buttresses and Flying Buttresses






Thin walls
Slender pillars to support vaulting system & clustered columns.








Large Stained Glass Windows

Cruciform Shape 
High Pointed Spires
High Relief Sculpture 

Tracery – ornamental stone work was used to support the glass in the round and tall lancet windows.



 Chartres








The Royal Portal of Chartres


  

The North Portal of Chartres

The North Portal – dedicated to the Virgin Mary

Old Testament Prophets & Mary precursors to the arrival of Christ.





The South Portal of Chartres




Rheims




Rouen




Sculpture






Ekehard & Uta - Naumburg Master



The Virgin of Notre Dame






The Well of Moses


Stained Glass





Stained Glass in Chartres Cathedral










Sainte Chapelle





Exam questions


2015 – Gothic Architecture & sculpture
The creators of Gothic churches and cathedrals used architecture, sculpture and stained glass to communicate ideas about the power of the church as well as about the story of Christianity. Discuss this statement with reference to a named Gothic church or cathedral.
and
Briefly describe and discuss the treatment of the human figure in a named Gothic sculpture.
Illustrate your answer.

2014 – Gothic sculpture & architecture
Name and discuss the sculpture illustrated on the accompanying sheet, making reference to the sculptor, theme, composition, style, and the period in which it was produced.
And
Name a cathedral from this period and briefly describe and discuss its main architectural features.

Illustrate your answer.


2013 – Gothic architecture & stained glass
The fa├žade of a gothic cathedral must have made a powerful impression on approaching worshippers.
Discuss this statement with reference to one named gothic cathedral you have studied.
In your discussion refer to the architectural features and sculptural decoration.
And
Briefly describe the roll of stained glass in a gothic cathedral.
Illustrate your answer.

2012 – Romanesque & Gothic sculpture

Name and discuss in detail the two sculptures illustrated on the accompanying sheet, making reference to the periods in which they were produced, and to their themes, composition and style.
and
Discuss briefly the role of sculpture in a named medieval church/cathedral that you have studied.

 Illustrate your answer.


2011 – Romanesque & Gothic comparison, gothic sculpture

Discuss the ways in which the main architectural and decorative features of
Romanesque churches differ from those of Gothic cathedrals. In your answer name one Romanesque church and one Gothic cathedral, and make detailed reference to scale, structure, layout and decoration.
and

Name and discuss briefly one example of Gothic sculpture that you have studied.

 Illustrate your answer.

2010 – Romanesque architecture & Sculpture
The Christian church influenced the development of art and architecture during the Romanesque period. Discuss this statement making detailed reference to the structure, layout and decoration of one named church from the period.
 and

Name and discuss briefly one example of Romanesque sculpture that you have studied.

 Illustrate your answer.


2009 – Gothic Sculpture & Architecture – the relationship between sculpture & architecture
During the gothic period in Europe, the range and style of religious sculpture developed significantly. 
Discuss this statement in relation to two names examples of gothic sculpture you have studied.  Emphasise the treatment of the human figure in your answer. 
And

Name a gothic church you have studied and discuss briefly the relationship between its architecture and sculpture.
Use sketches to illustrate your answer.


2008 – Gothic architecture - development
Describe and discuss the development of gothic architecture in from the 12th to the 16th century making reference to the three illustrations on the accompanying sheet.

In your answer, name the buildings and refer to structure, decoration and style.
Illustrate your answer.

2007 – Romanesque Sculpture – relationship between sculpture & architecture

Romanesque sculpture has decorative and narrative functions.
Discuss this statement in relation to two named examples of Romanesque sculpture you have studied.  Emphasise the treatment of the human figure in your answer
And

Name a Romanesque church you have studied and discuss briefly the relationship between its architecture and sculpture.
Illustrate your answer.


2006 – stained glass & its contribution to the overall church
Discuss in detail the stained glass window illustrated on the accompanying sheet.  Refer in your answer to its overall plan/design, theme and composition, use of colour and the technique used in its construction.
And
Discuss the contribution stained glass windows have made to the overall impact of a named gothic cathedral you have studied.
Illustrate your answer.

2005 – gothic sculpture & its relationship to architecture
Answer (a) and (b)

(a) Describe and discuss the characteristics of Gothic sculpture and its relationship to the architecture of the period. Use specific examples.

(b) How does Gothic sculpture differ from the sculpture of the Romanesque period?
Use specific examples.

Illustrate your answer.

2004 – Romanesque Architecture & Sculpture
In Europe, crusades, pilgrimages and monasticism contributed to the development of Romanesque art and architecture. Discuss this statement, referring in your answer to two specific Romanesque churches and to the origins, development and characteristics of the Romanesque style.

Illustrate your answer.